Ritual cleansing. Ghusl (complete bath) is for major defilements like sexual intercourse, while wudu for lesser defilements like urination or sleep. After stating intentions (niya/niat) to do ablutions, a Muslim says, "Bismillahi arrahmani ar-rahimi," washes hands 3 times, rinses mouth, sniffs water into nostrils and expels it, washes face, arms to elbows. Rub his wet hand through hair, touch his ears, wash his feet. Sand and dust can be used if water is not available, excess is beaten off after striking dust, and goes through the motion of washing. (See Sahih Bukhari 1.142, Sahih Bukhari 1.185, Sahih Bukhari 1.186, Sahih Bukhari 1.190, Sahih Bukhari 1.191, Sahih Bukhari 1.198, etc). The Shi`ite method is simpler as given in the Qur'an.

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