Answering Islam - A Christian-Muslim dialog

The Binitarian Nature of the Holy Bible’s supreme proof text for the unity of God Pt. 1

Sam Shamoun

The OT Scriptures clearly and emphatically teach that there is only one God:

“You have been shown, so as to know that Yahweh is God; there is no other besides him… Acknowledge and take to heart this day that Yahweh is God in the heavens above and on the earth beneath. There is no other.” Deuteronomy 4:35, 39

“See now that I, even I am he, and there are no gods beside me. I put to death, and I make alive. I have severely wounded, and I, I will heal. And there is no one that can snatch out of my hand.” Deuteronomy 32:39

“Then he went back to the man of God, he with all his camp, and came and stood before him and said: “Here, now, I certainly know that there is no God anywhere in the earth but in Israel. And now accept, please, a blessing gift from your servant.’ However, he said: ‘As Yahweh before whom I do stand is living, I will not accept it.’ And he began to urge him to accept it, but he kept refusing. Finally Na´a·man said: ‘If not, please, let there be given to your servant some ground, the load of a pair of mules; because your servant will no more render up a burnt offering or a sacrifice to any other gods but to Yahweh.’” 2 Kings 5:15-19

“Then Hez·e·ki´ah took the letters out of the hand of the messengers and read them, after which Hez·e·ki´ah went up to the house of Yahweh and spread it out before Yahweh. And Hez·e·ki´ah began to pray to Yahweh, saying: O Yahweh of hosts, the God of Israel, sitting upon the cherubs, you alone are God of all the kingdoms of the earth. You yourself have made the heavens and the earth. Incline your ear, O Yahweh, and hear. Open your eyes, O Yahweh, and see, and hear all the words of Sen·nach´er·ib that he has sent to taunt the living God. It is a fact, O Yahweh, that the kings of As·syr´i·a have devastated all the lands, and their own land. And there was a consigning of their gods to the fire, because they were no gods, but the workmanship of man’s hands, wood and stone, so that they destroyed them. And now, O Yahweh our God, save us out of his hand, that all the kingdoms of the earth may know that you, O Yahweh, are God alone.’” Isaiah 37:14-20

“This is what Yahweh has said, the King of Israel and his Redeemer, Yahweh of hosts, ‘I am the first and I am the last, and besides me there is no God. And who is there like me? Let him call out, that he may tell it and present it to me. From when I appointed the people of long ago, both the things coming and the things that will enter in let them tell on their part. Do not be in dread and do not become stupefied. Have I not from that time on caused you individually to hear and told [it] out? And you are my witnesses. Does there exist a God besides me? No, there is no Rock. I have recognized none.’”Isaiah 44:6-8 – cf. 43:10-11; 45:5-6; 46:9-11

The inspired Christian Greek Scriptures also affirm this truth:

“How can you believe if you accept praise from one another, yet make no effort to obtain the praise that comes from the only God?” John 5:44

“Now this is eternal life: that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent.” John 17:3 – cf. 1 John 5:20-21

“since there is only one God, who will justify the circumcised by faith and the uncircumcised through that same faith.” Romans 3:30

“For they themselves report concerning us the kind of reception we had among you, and how you turned to God from idols to serve the living and true God, and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead, Jesus who delivers us from the wrath to come.” 1 Thessalonians 1:9-10

“Now to the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honor and glory for ever and ever. Amen.” 1 Timothy 1:17

“For there is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus,” 1 Timothy 2:5

“You believe that there is one God. Good! Even the demons believe that—and shudder.” James 2:19

“to the only God, our Savior, through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, dominion, and authority, before all time and now and forever. Amen.” Jude 1:25

The NT further says that everything that is falsely and mistakenly worshiped by others are not gods by nature:

“Formerly, when you did not know God, you were slaves to those who by nature are not gods.” Galatians 4:8

This presupposes that there is one, however, who is God by nature and that is the true God revealed in the Holy Bible.

However, the inspired Scriptures also testify that God is a multi-Personal Being, or more specifically tri-Personal. That God is multi-Personal can be seen from the following passage, known as the Shema, the monotheistic creed of Israel:

“Listen, Israel: The Lord is our God, the Lord is one (Yahweh Eloheinu Yahweh echad)! You must love the Lord your God with your whole mind, your whole being, and all your strength.” Deuteronomy 6:4-5 NET Bible

Eloheinu is the 1st person plural declension of Elohim and can therefore be translated as “our Gods.” Moreover, the Hebrew word for “one,” echad, functions much like the English word in that it can refer to a solitary oneness or to a complex unity as in the following example:

“For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and they will become one flesh (basar echad).” Genesis 2:24

Two separate and distinct flesh and blood human beings become echad or one flesh through sexual consummation. The Greek word for one also functions the same way:

“He [Jesus] answered, ‘Have you not read that he who created them from the beginning made them male and female, and said, “Therefore a man shall leave his father and his mother and hold fast to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh (sarka mian)”? So they are no longer two but one flesh (sarx mia). What therefore God has joined together, let not man separate.’" Matthew 19:4-6

He who plants and he who waters are one (hen), and each will receive his wages according to his labor.” 1 Corinthians 3:8

In light of this we propose translating the Shema in the following way since it brings out more clearly the revelation that God is multi-Personal:

“Hear O Israel: Yahweh our Godhead, Yahweh is a complex unity.”

The following NT passage provides implicit support for our interpretation:

“What, then, was the purpose of the law? It was added because of transgressions until the Seed to whom the promise referred had come. The law was put into effect through angels by a mediator. Now a mediator is not for one party only; whereas God is only one.” Galatians 3:19-20

Since the immediate context refers to Moses mediating on behalf of more than one group, namely God and the nation of Israel, it seems reasonably certain that Paul is saying that God is a party in and of himself. Therefore, the text can be translated this way:

“A mediator, however, does not represent just one party; but God is one party.” Galatians 3:20

With that said we need to stress that when the inspired Bible writers use plurals such as Eloheinu it is not because they were trying to argue for the existence of multiple Gods. Rather, the authors of Holy Scripture employed the thought patterns and categories of the Hebrew language to communicate the fact that there is more than one eternal Person of God. They did this by using plural nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, participles etc. Therefore, the use of such plurals is actually what we would expect to find if the Holy Bible does present a Triune God.

In other words, if the inspired Scriptures do affirm that there is more than one Divine Person that exists as the one God then it should not come as a surprise to find the Holy Bible speaking of God in the plural; in fact we would actually expect to find plural nouns, verbs, adjectives being used for God to denote the fact that he is a multi-Personal Being.

However, not everyone agrees that the Holy Bible teaches that God is tri-Personal. There are so-called “Biblical” unitarians who argue that God is a singular Person according to the God-breathed Scriptures and that the Shema affirms this fact.(1)

According to these folks the text of Deuteronomy 6:4 should be translated in the following manner:

“Hear O Israel: Yahweh our God, Yahweh is one Person.”  

They would further propose to translate Galatians 3:20 this way:

“A mediator, however, does not represent just one party; but God is one Person.”

Some of them even appeal to the Amplified Bible to prove their case:

“Now a go-between (intermediary) has to do with and implies more than one party [there can be no mediator with just one person]. Yet God is [only] one Person [and He was the sole party in giving that promise to Abraham. But the Law was a contract between two, God and Israel; its validity was dependent on both].”

In light of these assertions we will set out to prove that the inspired Scriptures do not depict Yahweh as a singular Person. We will present OT passages which clearly affirm that there are at least two Divine Persons of God. We will further examine the NT to see how Jesus, the Apostles, and the inspired authors of the Christian Greek Scriptures interpreted the OT texts which we will be examining in order to see whether Christ and his followers believed God is a singular Person.

The Lord at Yahweh’s right hand

According to the inspired Scriptures there are at least two Divine Persons who rule over creation, namely Yahweh and David’s Lord:

“A Psalm of David. Yahweh says to my Lord (adoni): ‘Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.’ Yahweh will extend your mighty scepter from Zion; you will rule in the midst of your enemies. Your people will offer themselves freely on the day of your power, in holy garments; from the womb of the morning, the dew of your youth will be yours. Yahweh has sworn and will not change his mind: ‘You are a priest forever, in the order of Melchizedek.’ The Lord (Adonai) is at your right hand; HE will crush kings on the day of HIS wrath. HE will judge the nations, heaping up the dead and crushing the rulers of the whole earth. HE will drink from a brook beside the way; therefore HE will lift up HIS head.” Psalm 110:1-7

David’s Lord is a priest who sits enthroned next to Yahweh over his enemies whom he will destroy in the day of battle.(2)

What makes this interesting is that the Psalter uses language that is typically reserved for Yahweh for David’s Lord. For instance, the word footstool is used in relation to Yahweh’s resting place, for the location where the Ark of the Covenant eventually came to settle, namely Jerusalem:    

“The LORD reigns, let the nations tremble; he sits enthroned between the cherubim, let the earth shake. Great is the LORD in Zion; he is exalted over all the nations. Let them praise your great and awesome name – he is holy. The King is mighty, he loves justice – you have established equity; in Jacob you have done what is just and right. Exalt the LORD our God and worship at his footstool; he is holy.” Psalm 99:1-5

“O LORD, remember David and all the hardships he endured. He swore an oath to the LORD and made a vow to the Mighty One of Jacob: I will not enter my house or go to my bed – I will allow no sleep to my eyes, no slumber to my eyelids, till I find a place for the LORD, a dwelling for the Mighty One of Jacob.’ We heard it in Ephrathah, we came upon it in the fields of Jaar: ‘Let us go to his dwelling place; let us worship at his footstool – arise, O LORD, and come to your resting place, you and the ark of your might. May your priests be clothed with righteousness; may your saints sing for joy.’ For the sake of David your servant, do not reject your anointed one. The LORD swore an oath to David, a sure oath that he will not revoke: ‘One of your own descendants I will place on your throne – if your sons keep my covenant and the statutes I teach them, then their sons will sit on your throne for ever and ever.’ For the LORD has chosen Zion, he has desired it for his dwelling: ‘This is my resting place for ever and ever; here I will sit enthroned, for I have desired it- I will bless her with abundant provisions; her poor will I satisfy with food. I will clothe her priests with salvation, and her saints will ever sing for joy. Here I will make a horn grow for David and set up a lamp for my anointed one. I will clothe his enemies with shame, but the crown on his head will be resplendent.’” Psalm 132:1-18 – cf. Isaiah 66:1; Lamentations 2:1

The Ark of the Covenant symbolizes Yahweh’s throne which is rather significant since, as well shall shortly see, David’s Lord sits on the heavenly throne of Yahweh! Thus, Yahweh’s footstool is located right by the very throne that David’s Lord rules from!

Elsewhere, the Psalms refer to the nations as the enemies of Yahweh who mock him and his Anointed Ruler:

“O Lord, where is your former great love, which in your faithfulness you swore to David? Remember, Lord, how your servant has been mocked, how I bear in my heart the taunts of all the nations, the taunts with which your enemies have mocked, O LORD, with which they have mocked every step of your anointed one.” Psalm 89:49-51

These are the nations whose kings refuse to submit to the rule of Yahweh and his Christ:

“Why do the nations rage and the peoples plot in vain? The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the LORD and against his Anointed, saying, Let us burst THEIR bonds apart and cast away THEIR cords from us.’ He who sits in the heavens laughs; the Lord holds them in derision. Then he will speak to them in his wrath, and terrify them in his fury, saying, ‘As for me, I have set my King on Zion, my holy hill.’” Psalm 2:1-6

The Psalters also speak of Yahweh seizing his foes with his right hand:

Your hand will lay hold on all your enemies; your right hand will seize your foes. At the time of your appearing you will make them like a fiery furnace. In his wrath the LORD will swallow them up, and his fire will consume them. You will destroy their descendants from the earth, their posterity from mankind. Though they plot evil against you and devise wicked schemes, they cannot succeed; for you will make them turn their backs when you aim at them with drawn bow.” Psalm 21:8-12 – cf. 8:1-2; 66:3; 74:23; 92:9

And according to the following Psalm there is actually a Man at Yahweh’s right hand, even a Son of Man, whom Yahweh has made strong for his purpose. This Man is even said to be Yahweh’s Son!

“O God of hosts, turn again now, we beseech You; Look down from heaven and see, and take care of this vine, Even the shoot which Your right hand has planted, And on the son whom You have strengthened for Yourself. It is burned with fire, it is cut down; They perish at the rebuke of Your countenance. Let Your hand be upon the man of Your right hand, Upon the son of man whom You made strong for Yourself. Then we shall not turn back from You; Revive us, and we will call upon Your name. O LORD God of hosts, restore us; Cause Your face to shine upon us, and we will be saved.” Psalm 80:14-19

Psalm 110 helps us see that this Son of Man at Yahweh’s right hand is none other than David’s Lord who crushes his foes in the day of his wrath!

This also helps us to understand what the Psalter meant that Yahweh will seize his foes with his right hand, i.e., the Lord who sits enthroned at Yahweh’s right hand shall destroy all of God’s enemies. More on this shortly.

Another interesting aspect about Psalm 110 is that in the OT Scriptures Yahweh is depicted as sitting on his throne in heaven whereas his heavenly hosts are pictured as standing before him in attendance, ready to serve and carry out his orders: 

“Micaiah continued, ‘Therefore hear the word of the LORD: I saw the LORD sitting on his throne with ALL the host of heaven STANDING on his right and on his left. And the LORD said, “Who will entice Ahab king of Israel into attacking Ramoth Gilead and going to his death there?” One suggested this, and another that. Finally, a spirit came forward, stood before the LORD and said, “I will entice him.” “By what means?” the LORD asked. “I will go and be a lying spirit in the mouths of all his prophets,” he said. “You will succeed in enticing him,” said the LORD. “Go and do it.” So now the LORD has put a lying spirit in the mouths of these prophets of yours. The LORD has decreed disaster for you.’” 2 Chronicles 18:18-22 – cf. 1 Kings 22:19-23

He who sits in the heavens laughs, The Lord scoffs at them.” Psalm 2:4

"The LORD has established His throne in the heavens, And His sovereignty rules over all. Bless the LORD, you His angels, Mighty in strength, who perform His word, Obeying the voice of His word! Bless the LORD, all you His hosts, You who serve Him, doing His will." Psalm 103:19-21

“As I looked, thrones were set in place, and the Ancient of Days took his seat. His clothing was as white as snow; the hair of his head was white like wool. His throne was flaming with fire, and its wheels were all ablaze. A river of fire was flowing, coming out from before him. Thousands upon thousands attended him; ten thousand times ten thousand STOOD before him. The court was seated, and the books were opened.” Daniel 7:9-10

However, instead of standing in service like the rest David’s Lord is actually seated besides Yahweh. This means that David’s Lord shares in Yahweh’s unique sovereign rule over the entire creation!

Jesus Christ – David’s Exalted Lord

According to the NT, Jesus Christ is the Lord whom David spoke of by inspiration of the Holy Spirit:

“While Jesus was teaching in the temple courts, he asked, ‘How is it that the teachers of the law say that the Christ is the son of David? David himself, speaking by the Holy Spirit, declared: “The Lord said to my Lord: ‘Sit at my right hand until I put your enemies under your feet.’” David himself calls him “Lord.” How then can he be his son?’ The large crowd listened to him with delight.” Mark 12:35-37

“Brothers, I can tell you confidently that the patriarch David died and was buried, and his tomb is here to this day. But he was a prophet and knew that God had promised him on oath that he would place one of his descendants on his throne. Seeing what was ahead, he spoke of the resurrection of the Christ, that he was not abandoned to the grave, nor did his body see decay. God has raised this Jesus to life, and we are all witnesses of the fact. Exalted to the right hand of God, he has received from the Father the promised Holy Spirit and has poured out what you now see and hear. For David did not ascend to heaven, and yet he said, ‘The Lord said to my Lord: “Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.”’ Therefore let all Israel be assured of this: God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, both Lord and Christ.” Acts 2:30-36

Jesus further claimed to be the Son of Man who not only sits at the right hand of God but also rides the clouds of heaven:

“Again the high priest asked him, ‘Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed One?’ ‘I am,’ said Jesus. ‘And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.’” Mark 14:61b-62

Here, Jesus identifies himself as the Lord whom David spoke of in Psalm 110 and the Divine Son of Man that the prophet Daniel saw, the One whom all the nations are required to worship as he rules over them forever!    

“In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a Son of Man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence. He was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all peoples, nations and men of every language worshiped him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed.” Daniel 7:13-14

Thus, Jesus is the Christ who sits enthroned at his Father’s right hand as the Divine Lord of all creation! 

As the following Evangelical scholars explain:

“Some modern readers of the Bible have suggested that Jesus was here denying that the Messiah would be a descendant of David, but this really misses the point. Jesus is not denying that the Messiah would be a descendant of David but is pointing out that somehow the Messiah would be much more than that. The Messiah would not be a mere Davidic king but would be a universal sovereign, sitting at God’s right hand, honored as Lord even by his ancestor David.

“A careful examination of Psalm 110:1, and Jesus’ application of it (in conjunction with Daniel 7:13) to himself, reveals how remarkable Jesus’ claim was and why it seemed to the Sanhedrin to be blasphemous. It was one thing to enter God’s presence and yet another to sit in it. But to sit at God’s right side was another matter altogether. In the religious culture and milieu of Jesus’ day, to claim to sit at God’s right hand was tantamount to claiming to equality with God… 

“Jesus, then, was claiming the right to go directly into God’s ‘throne room’ and sit at his side. The temerity of such a claim for any mere human would be astonishing to the Jews of Jesus’ day. The priests of the Sanhedrin, to whom Jesus made this claim, could not, as a rule, even go into the inner sanctum of the temple, known as the Holy of Holies. Many of them probably had never been inside it. The Holy of Holies could be entered only on a specific day in specific ways by one specific person. Failure to follow the instructions exactly resulted in death. On the Day of Atonement, the high priest entered the Holy of Holies, carrying the blood of a bull as offering for personal purification and the blood of a ram as offering for atonement for the people. This was followed by a change of garments and ritual washings (Lev. 16). In other words, one entered into God’s presence in the temple cautiously.

“If entrance requirements to the earthly Holy of Holies were so strict, we can imagine what the Sanhedrin priests would have thought about Jesus claiming to have the right to enter God’s heavenly presence. After all, the earthly temple was, according to Josephus, viewed as a model of the heavenly one. Worse still, though, Jesus was claiming that he was going to enter permanently into the heavenly Holy of Holies and sit down. Jesus might as well have claimed that he owned the place! Indeed, this is what his statement amounted to. As Darrel Bock has put it, Jesus’ claim ‘would be worse, in the leadership’s view, than claiming the right to be able to walk into the Holy of Holies in the temple and live there!’” (Robert M. Bowman Jr. & J. Ed Komoszewski, Putting Jesus in His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ [Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, MI 2007], Part 5: the Best Seat In The House: Jesus Shares the Seat of God’s Throne, Chapter 20. God’s Right-Hand Man, pp. 244-245)

The Messiah – A Mere Human Lord?

It should be mentioned at this point that Psalm 110:1 is one of main proof texts that “Biblical” unitarians use to establish that David’s Lord, the Messiah, is not God but a mere human being. They argue that in every one of its 195 occurrences Adoni actually means a superior who is not God. They further assert that Adonai is the Hebrew word which designates Deity since it is used exclusively for the one true God in all of its 449 occurrences. They conclude from this that since Adonai is the title of Deity, and Adoni is never used for God, the Messiah must therefore be a human being since he is never called Adonai but Adoni.

There are a few problems with this assertion. In the first place, the word Adoni is used for God so this is simply mistaken. We will have more to say concerning this point in an upcoming excursus.

Secondly, Trinitarians affirm that Jesus is an actual flesh and blood human being, so to quote a text which emphasizes the humanity of the Messiah does absolutely nothing to undermine the explicit Biblical witness to his perfect and essential Deity.

Besides, David’s Lord is actually called Adonai which brings us to the next part.


(1) Here are two websites for any of our readers that are interested in perusing some of the articles and books produced by “Biblical” unitarians in defense of their position:

(2) Some anti-Trinitarians have argued that the Christian explanation of the Shema rules out Jesus from being David’s Lord in Psalm 110:1. They base this objection on the fact that in that particular Psalm Yahweh is speaking to David’s Lord, and the name Yahweh in Christian understanding refers to all three members of the Trinity. Moreover, the one Yahweh spoken of in the Shema is the Trinity according to the Christian position.

As such, how can Yahweh address Jesus in Psalm 110:1 when Yahweh is supposed to be the Trinity and Jesus is supposed to be the second Person of the Trinity and therefore Yahweh God? Does this mean that Jesus was speaking to himself?

They further reason that since David’s Lord in Psalm 110:1 (who is supposed to be Jesus) is sitting next to the Lord, who is supposed to be the Triune Godhead, this means that the former cannot be part of the Trinity. After all, that which exists outside of God cannot be God (or so the argument goes).

These objections are based on the fallacy of equivocation since they equivocate on the word Yahweh. The underlying assumption is that the name Yahweh in Christian theology ALWAYS refers to the Trinity or that the Christian argument is that every single occurrence of Yahweh in the Hebrew Scriptures is necessarily a reference to the Trinity. However, these replies are nothing more than a blatant distortion of the Christian position and are therefore straw man arguments.

In Christian exegesis the word Yahweh, much like the term God, can take on a different sense depending upon the referent or the context in which it is used. The following passage serves as a helpful illustration: 

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God (ton theon), and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God (ton theon).” John 1:1-2

In this particular text John states that Jesus in his prehuman existence was the Word that was with the God and was God. The use of the definite article before God, i.e., ton theon, indicates that the Word was having intimate fellowship with a specific Person who is commonly referred to or known as God, which in this case would be the Father.

John then goes on to describe the nature of the Word by placing theos before the verb “was,” which Greek grammarians call a pre-verbal predicate nominative. According to this construction the placement of the noun before the verb is intended to stress the qualities of the subject, emphasizing the fact that the Word has all the essential attributes of God.

Thus, we have the word God being used in two different senses within the very same context.

In light if this it would be a gross mistake to assume that Christians are required to interpret John 1:1-2 to mean that the Word was with the Trinity and that the Word was the Trinity on the basis that God in Christian understanding normally refers to the Trinity.

In a similar way it is an error to think that Christians must take the word Yahweh in Psalm 110:1 as a reference to the Trinity solely because this is how the Divine Name is commonly used in Christian thought.

In point of fact the name Yahweh is used in Christian theology to refer either to the Triune Godhead or in reference to any of the specific Persons of the Trinity since all three share the one Divine name:

“Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the NAME of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.” Matthew 28:19

As Dr. James R. White explains in his discussion on how to share the biblical truth of the Trinity with Jehovah’s Witnesses:  

"I assume you would agree with me that there is only one true God, Yahweh, or as you pronounce it, Jehovah. I believe the name 'Jehovah' refers to the very divine Being, the eternal God who created everything. We can agree, I assume, that the Father is identified as Jehovah. But I believe that the Bible identifies Jesus as Yahweh, as well, and the Spirit is the Spirit of Yahweh. Each of these three persons share the one divine name, Yahweh or Jehovah. May I show you a few passages of Scripture that makes this identification?" (White, The Forgotten Trinity: Recovering the Heart of Christian Belief [Bethany House Publishers, Grand Rapids, MI 1998], Chapter 9. Jehovah of Hosts, p. 132; bold emphasis ours)

Thus, when Christians say that Jesus is Yahweh or call him God they do not mean that Christ is the entire Godhead. Nor do they mean that Jesus was sent by the Trinity or that the Trinity is his Father whenever they speak of God sending his beloved Son.  

With the foregoing in perspective it is important to explain how Christians interpret these specific verses. Christians understand that Yahweh in Deuteronomy 6:4 is a reference to the Godhead collectively, i.e., Moses in this context is speaking of the essential unity of the three Divine Persons. Yet when Psalm 110:1 has Yahweh addressing David’s Lord Christians interpret this to be the Father speaking to the Son, which means that Yahweh in this particular context refers to the Father not to the entire Godhead.      

For more on this subject we recommend the following article.