Answering Islam - A Christian-Muslim dialog

The human origin of Muhammad’s legislation and teachings –

Responding to the bluster of a Muslim dawagandist Pt. 2

Sam Shamoun

We resume with our refutation to Jalal’s tirade against Christian apologist David Wood. Here we will provide further documentation for the blasphemous and idolatrous nature of Islam.

Islam’s Idolatrous Creed

It is not surprising that Islam mandates faith in Muhammad as Allah’s messenger in order to be saved seeing that he is presented as the last of the prophets (Q. 33:40). As the late Quranic translator and commentator Abdullah Yusuf Ali noted,

“… The verse does not purport to lay down an exhaustive list of articles of faith. Nor does it seek to spell out the essentials of a genuine belief in Allah, which has no meaning unless it is accompanied by belief in His Prophets for it is through their agency alone that we know Allah’s will and can abide by it in our practical lives. This is especially true of His final Prophet, Muhammad whose message is universal, and not confined to any particular group or section of humanity. Belief in the Prophethood of Muhammad is thus an integral part and a logical corollary of belief in Allah. Moreover, it is also an essential test of genuineness of such belief. This becomes clear when the verse is read in conjunction with other relevant verses of the Qur-an. See, for instance, iv. 170, v. 15, 19, vii. 157, 158, xxi. 107, xxv. I, xxxiii, 40, lxi. 6. See also ii. 40, iii. 31-32, iv. 150-151.” (Ali, Commentary on Q. 5:69, fn. 779 – ALIM CD-Rom Version; underline emphasis ours)

However, what is surprising and rather shocking is that traditional, orthodox Islam requires its adherents to verbally profess faith in both Allah and Muhammad together in order to be saved. This is known as the shahadah (testimony, testification, witness) or kalima (creed, statement).

A person must recite the following Arabic words if s/he is to be considered and accepted as a Muslim(ah):

Ash-shadu anna la ilaha illallah. Ash-shadu anna Muhammadar Rasoolulah (“I bear witness that there is no god except Allah. And I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger”).

A Muslim(ah) may also express his/her faith with the following words:

Ash-shadu anna la ilaha illallahu wahdahu la Sharika Lahu wa ash-shadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasuluhu (“I bear witness that there is no god except, the One, without any partner. And I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger”).

If this weren’t problematic enough, what many non-Muslims (as well as many Muslims!) do not realize is that certain Muslim sources attest that Allah deliberately conjoined his name with Muhammad’s through the use of the Arabic conjunction wa (“and”). And according to Islamic scholars this is the conjunction of equality and partnership, which therefore places Muhammad on the same divine level with his god!

For instance, a renowned Muslim jurist and scholar named Qadi Iyad Ibn Musa al-Yahsubi refers to Muslims who discouraged others from using the conjunction when speaking of Allah and anything else. He, however, makes an exception in the case of the Islamic creed of faith, the very confession which elevates Muhammad to divine status and parity with Allah!

Qatada said, “Allah exalted his fame in this world and the Next. There is no speaker, witness nor anyone doing the prayer who fails to say, ‘There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.’”

Abu Sa'id al-Khudri related that the Prophet said, “Jibril came to me and said, ‘My Lord and your Lord says, “Do you know how I have exalted your fame?”’ I said, ‘Allah and His Messenger know best.’ He said, ‘When I am mentioned you are mentioned with Me.’”

Ibn ‘Ata quoted a hadith qudsi saying, “I completed belief with your being mentioned with Me.” And another one which says, “I have made your mention part of My mention so whoever mentions Me, mentions you.”

Ja'far ibn Muhammad as-Sadiq, “No one mentions you as the Messenger but that he mentions Me as the Lord.”

The fact that mention of the Prophet is directly connected to mention of Allah also shows that obedience to the Prophet is connected to obedience to Allah and his name to Allah's name. Allah says, “Obey Allah and His Messenger” (2:32) and “Believe in Allah and His Messenger.” (4:136) Allah joins them together using the conjunction wa WHICH IS THE CONJUNCTION OF PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT PERMITTED TO USE THIS CONJUNCTION IN CONNECTION WITH ALLAH IN THE CASE OF ANYONE EXCEPT THE PROPHET.

Hudhayfa said that the Prophet said, “None of you should say, ‘What Allah wills and (wa) so-and-so wills.’ Rather say, ‘What Allah wills.’ Then stop and say, ‘So-and-so wills.’”

Al-Khattabi said, “The Prophet has guided you to correct behaviour in putting the will of Allah before the will of others. He chose ‘then’ (thumma) which implies sequence and deference as opposed to ‘and’ (wa) WHICH IMPLIES PARTNERSHIP.”

Something similar is mentioned in another hadith. Someone was speaking in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, “Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger has been rightly guided, and whoever rebels against them both (joining them together by using the dual form) …” The Prophet said to him, “What a bad speaker you are! Get up! [Or he said: Get out!]”

Abu Sulayman said, “He disliked the two names being joined together in that way BECAUSE IT IMPLIES EQUALITY.” … (Qadi Iyad, Kitab Ash-shifa bi ta'rif huquq al-Mustafa, Part One. Allah’s great estimation of the worth of His Prophet expressed both in word and action, Chapter One: Allah’s praise of him and his great esteem for him, Section 1. Concerning praise of him and his numerous excellent qualities, pp. 7-8; capital and underline emphasis ours)


“… He coupled his name with His own name, and his pleasure with His pleasure. He made him one of the two pillars of tawhid.” (Ibid., Chapter One: Allah’s praise of his Prophet, Section 9. Concerning the marks of honour given to the Prophet in Sura al-Fath, p. 27; underline emphasis ours)

And not only did Allah join Muhammad’s name to his own by the use of the conjunction wa he also placed his name on the very door of the heavenly garden itself!

Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Written on the door of the Garden is: I am Allah. There is no god but Me. Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. I will not punish anyone who says that.” (Ibid., Chapter Three: On the sound and well-known traditions related about the immense value placed on him by his Lord, his exalted position and his nobility in this world and the next, Section 1. What has come concerning his place with his Lord, the Mighty and Majestic, his being chosen, his high renown, his being preferred, his mastery over the children of Adam, the prerogative of the ranks he was given in this world and the blessing of his excellent name, p. 90; underline emphasis ours)

Interestingly, even the late Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhab agreed that it is vitally important for a Muslim to avoid using wa when referring to Allah together with someone or something else. According to him, a Muslim should rather use the conjunction thumma (“then”), or some other formulation which will avoid associating Allah with anything. He writes in his book on Islamic monotheism that,

A Jewish man came to the Prophet and said: “Verily, you (Muslims) commit Shirk, for you say: ‘As Allah wills AND as you will;’ and you say: ‘By the Ka’bah!’” And so the Prophet ordered whoever wanted to swear, to say: “By the Lord of the Ka’bah” and to say: “As Allah wills, THEN as you will.” (An-Nasaa’ee, it was declared saheeh by Albanee in as Saheehah # 137 and declared saheeh by Adh-Dhahabee in his checking of Al Mustadrak and declared saheeh by Ibn Hajar in Al Isaabah 4/389)

A man came to the Prophet and he said: “As Allah AND you will,” at which the Prophet said: “Would you set me up as a partner besides Allah? As Allah Alone Wills” (An-Nasaa’ee, declared authentic (hasan) by Albanee in as Saheehah # 139)

On the authority of At-Tufail the half brother of Aishah it is reported that he said: "I saw in a dream that I came upon a number of Jews and I said to them: ‘You are indeed a good people were it not that you claim ‘Uzair is the son of Allah.’ They replied: ‘You too are good, were it not that you say: As Allah wills AND as Muhammad wills.’ Then, I came upon a number of Christians and I said to them: ‘You are indeed a good people were it not that you claim the Messiah (Jesus) is the son of Allah.’ They replied: ‘You are also good, were it not that you say: As Allah wills AND as Muhammad wills.’ When I awoke I told someone about this then I went to the Prophet and repeated it to him. He asked me: ‘Have you told anyone about this?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ Then he went to the pulpit and, after praising Allah, he said: ‘At-Tufail had a dream which he has already communicated to some of you. You used to say something which I was prevented from forbidding to you until now. Henceforth do not say: As Allah wills AND as Muhammad wills, but say: What Allah Alone Wills.’” (Ibn Maajah, Albanee mentioned it in as Saheehah # 138, Al Haythamee said in Majma Az-Zawaaid: the men in its chain are reliable according to the conditions of Imam Muslim) (Takhreej of Kitaab at Tawheed, posted by 2004, Chapter 43: Saying: “As Allah Wills and You Will”, pp. 21-22; See also Kitab At-Tawheed, translated by the Compilation and Research Department Dar-us-Salam, Chapter No: 44. How it is to say “What Allah may will and you may will”; capital, italic and underline emphasis ours)


The Prophet said: “Do not say: ‘As Allah wills AND so and so wills,’ but (instead) say: ‘As Allah wills and THEN as so and so wills.’” (Abu Dawood, declared saheeh by Albaanee in as Saheehah #137 and Shaykh Al Islam Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab in Kitaab At Tawheed)

Ibraheem An-Nakha’i hated for anyone to say: “I seek refuge in Allah AND you,” but he considered it permissible to say: “I seek refuge in Allah and THEN in you.” Then he added: “A person should say: If not for Allah then so-and-so…” and he should not say: “If not for Allah AND so-and-so.” (Abdur Razzaq) (Ibid., Chapter 41: Allah’s Words: “And Do Not Ascribe Partners to Allah when you know [the Truth]”, p. 21; See also Kitab At-Tawheed, by Dar-us-Salam, Chapter No: 42. (“Do not set up rivals unto Allah…”); capital emphasis ours)

Some of these reports are also found in the writings of the late Shaykh al-Albany, another Salafi whom many Muslim scholars consider an innovator and distorter of Islamic teachings (*; *),

2- 923 - On the authority of Qutaylah bint Seefee al-Juhaneeyah who said: A learned man from amongst the people of the Book came to the Messenger of Allaah and said: ‘O Muhammad, you would be a blessed people if only you did not commit Shirk!’

He said: ‘SubhanAllaah, how is that?’

He said: ‘You say, when you take a vow, ‘I swear by the Ka’ba.’’

Qutaylah said: The Messenger of Allaah waited for a while then said: ‘Indeed he has said so, so for the one who makes a vow then let him make a vow by saying: (wa Rabb al-Ka’ba) I swear by The Lord of the Ka’ba.’

The learned man then said: ‘O Muhammad you would be blessed people if it were not that you set up a partner with Allaah!’

The Messenger said: ‘SubhanAllaah and how is that?’

He answered: ‘You say, ‘Whatever Allaah wills AND whatever you will.’’

Qutaylah said: The Messenger of Allaah waited for a while then said: ‘Indeed he has said so, so whoever says: ‘Whatever Allaah wills,’ then he should say along with it: ‘THEN whatever you will.’’ No. 1166 (Ahadeeth Pertaining to Eemaan, Tawheed, Deen and Qadr, taken from Silsilah Ahadeeth As-Saheehah of Shaykh Al-Albaani, translated by Abbas Abu Yahya; capital and underline emphasis ours)

It is evident from the preceding sources that the Islamic confession elevates Muhammad to divine status, making him coequal with Allah. Traditional Islam is therefore guilty of idolatry since it requires its adherents to conjoin a mere fallible, imperfect creature with their creator, making him a necessary component of salvation.

In order to see just how blasphemous and idolatrous the Muslim kalima truly is all a person has to do is to compare the OT confession of faith with the Islamic one:

“Hear O Israel, the LORD our God, the LORD is one (Shema Yisrael Yahweh Eloheinu Yahweh Echad).” Deuteronomy 6:4

Notice that the Shema makes no mention of Moses (or any other prophet for that matter). This OT creedal statement is unlike the shahadah of the Muslims since it demonstrates that there is no place for confessing a mere creature (not even an angel!) alongside the one true God in one’s testimony of belief. Jalal will be hard pressed to find any mere mortal prophet or messenger conjoining their name with Yahweh’s in the way that Muhammad did.

For Muhammad to then come along after the inscripturation and codification of God’s inspired revelations, which he spoke through his blessed prophets and apostles, and exalt himself to parity of status with God – something that no true mortal prophet or apostle ever did – is simply further evidence that he is a false prophet.

Jalal needs to therefore explain how could and why would Allah make Muhammad an integral part of Islamic monotheism by including him as one of the two pillars of Tawhid, when this is supposed to be the very essence of Allah’s unity. Jalal has to further disprove that this inclusion of Muhammad within the Islamic creed doesn’t make his prophet, who is nothing more than a finite creature, into a god and a coequal partner with the Islamic deity.

Now Jalal may say that this is what the NT has done with the Lord Jesus Christ, particularly, conjoin his Person with God the Father in confessional statements such as in the following examples:

“because, if you confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For man believes with his heart and so is justified, and he confesses with his lips and so is saved. The scripture says, "No one who believes in him will be put to shame.’” Romans 10:9-10

“Hence, as to the eating of food offered to idols, we know that ‘an idol has no real existence,’ and that ‘there is no God but one.’ For although there may be so-called gods in heaven or on earth -- as indeed there are many ‘gods’ and many ‘lords’ -- yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist.” 1 Corinthians 8:4-6

The problem with appealing to such texts to justify what Muhammad did in the shahadah is that these passages presuppose the Deity of Christ and his essential coequality with the Father. The inspired NT writers are not joining a creature with the Creator in statements of belief, but are exhorting true believers to profess saving faith in the Divine Father and his Divine Son. In other words, the NT authors believed that both the Father and Son are fully God in essence and the joint Source of salvation, which explains why confessing faith in both of them is necessary for salvation:

“For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life. For God sent the Son into the world, not to condemn the world, but that the world might be saved through him. He who believes in him is not condemned; he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only Son of God.” John 3:16-18

“If any one hears my sayings and does not keep them, I do not judge him; for I did not come to judge the world but to save the world.” John 12:47

“Let not your hearts be troubled; believe in God, believe also in me. In my Father's house are many rooms; if it were not so, would I have told you that I go to prepare a place for you? And when I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and will take you to myself, that where I am you may be also.” John 14:1-3

“After Jesus said this, he looked toward heaven and prayed: ‘Father, the time has come. Glorify your Son, that your Son may glorify you. For you granted him authority over all people that he might give eternal life to all those you have given him. Now this is eternal life: that they may know you, the only true God, AND Jesus Christ, whom you have sent.’” John 17:1-3

“For it was fitting that he, for whom and by whom all things exist, in bringing many sons to glory, should make the Author of their salvation perfect through suffering.” Hebrews 2:10

“Although he was a Son, he learned obedience through what he suffered; and being made perfect he became the Source of eternal salvation to all who obey him,” Hebrews 5:8-9

"In this the love of God was made manifest among us, that God sent his only Son into the world, so that we might live through him. In this is love, not that we loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins… And we have seen and testify that the Father has sent his Son as the Savior of the world. Whoever confesses that Jesus is the Son of God, God abides in him, and he in God.” 1 John 4:9-10, 14-15

“If we receive the testimony of men, the testimony of God is greater; for this is the testimony of God that he has borne witness to his Son. He who believes in the Son of God has the testimony in himself. He who does not believe God has made him a liar, because he has not believed in the testimony that God has borne to his Son. And this is the testimony, that God gave us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. He who has the Son has life; he who has not the Son of God has not life. I write this to you who believe in the name of the Son of God, that you may know that you have eternal life.” 1 John 5:9-13

“And they sang a new song: ‘You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals, because you were slain, and with your blood you purchased men for God from every tribe and language and people and nation. You have made them to be a kingdom and priests to serve our God, and they will reign on the earth.’ Then I looked and heard the voice of many angels, numbering thousands upon thousands, and ten thousand times ten thousand. They encircled the throne and the living creatures and the elders. In a loud voice they sang: ‘Worthy is the Lamb, who was slain, to receive power and wealth and wisdom and strength and honor and glory and praise!’ Then I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and on the sea, and all that is in them, singing: ‘To him who sits on the throne and to the Lamb be praise and honor and glory and power, for ever and ever!’ The four living creatures said, ‘Amen,’ and the elders fell down and worshiped.” Revelation 5:9-14

“After this I looked and there before me was a great multitude that no one could count, from every nation, tribe, people and language, standing before the throne and in front of the Lamb. They were wearing white robes and were holding palm branches in their hands. And they cried out in a loud voice: 'Salvation belongs to our God, who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb.'” Revelation 7:9-10

To, therefore, cite NT texts to justify what Muhammad did only further proves that the Islamic confession has taken a creature and made him equal with the creator.

For more on the idolatrous implications of Islam’s shahadah we suggest the following articles and rebuttals:


Muhammad – The co-occupant of Allah’s throne

To make matters worse, there are certain Islamic expositors which claim that the following passage,

And as for the night, keep vigil a part of it, as a work of supererogation for thee; it MAY BE that thy Lord will raise thee up to a laudable station. S. 17:79

Refers to the last day when Allah will actually seat Muhammad on his very own throne! The renowned Muslim historian and commentator al-Tabari wrote that:

“Even though the traditions we have mentioned on the authority of the Prophet and his Companions and the Followers indicate the correct interpretation of maqaman mahmudan in Qur. 17:79 (as referring to Muhammad’s role as intercessor on the Day of Resurrection), Mujahid’s statement that God will seat Muhammad on His Throne remains one whose soundness CANNOT BE REJECTED either on the basis of traditions (khabar) or on the basis of speculation (nazar). This is so because there is n tradition from the Messenger of God or anyone of his Companions or the Followers that declares it to be impossible… From what we have said, it has become clear that, it is not impossible for an adherent of Islam to say what Mujahid had said, namely, that God will seat Muhammad on His Throne. If someone says: We do not disapprove of God’s seating Muhammad on His Throne (in view of the following tradition transmitted by) ‘Abbas b. ‘Abd al-‘Azim – Yahya b. Kathir – al-Jurayri – Sayf al-Sadusi – ‘Abdallah b. Salam: ‘On the Day of Resurrection, Muhammad will be on the Lord’s footstool (kursi),’ but we disapprove of God’s seating him together with Him, it should be said: Is it then permissible in your opinion that He seat him on it but not together with him? If he permits this, he is led to affirming that either he is together with Him, or God seats him (on the Throne) while being Himself either separate from it or neither contiguous with nor separate from it. Whatever alternative he chooses, he thereby enters into something that he disapproves. If he says that it is not permissible, he deviates from the statements of all the groups we have reported. This means diverging from the views of all adherents of Islam, since there is no other possible statement than those three, according to each of which Mujahid’s statement in this sense is not impossible.” (The History of Al-Tabari – General Introduction and From Creation to the Flood, translated by Franz Rosenthal [State University of New York Press (SUNY), Albany 1989], Volume I, Appendix A. A Partial Translation of Tafsir on Qur. 17:79 (Above, pp. 75 f.), pp. 149. 151; capital and underline emphasis ours)

See also al-Tabari’s explanation of Q. 17:79.

Al-Qurtubi, who is also viewed as an outstanding Muslim exegete, commented on this same Quranic reference in his al-Jami‘ li Ahkam al-Qur’an:

The third explanation of this verse is what al-Tabari reported from a party of scholars – among them Mujahid – whereby “the Exalted Station is the seating by Allah of the Prophet with Him on His Throne (kursiyyih).” They narrated a hadith to that effect, and al-Tabari backed up the possibility (jawâz) of such a thing with some extravagant statements (shatatin min al-qawl). However, what he said cannot be inferred [from the verse] except with over-subtlety as to meaning (al-talattuf bi al-ma‘nâ), and it is far-fetched (fîhi bu‘d). This is not to say that there is no such narration; only that [one endowed with] knowledge interprets it figuratively (al-‘ilmu yata’awwaluhu)… On that basis it is the same, with respect to possibility, whether Allah seats the Prophet on the Throne or on the ground. For His elevation over the Throne is not in the sense of displacement (intiqâl), removal (zawâl), nor change of position from standing to sitting, nor any state or condition to which the Throne itself is subject. Rather, He is elevated over the Throne in the way He has stated concerning Himself, without saying how. Nor does His seating of the Prophet on the Throne impose upon the Prophet (s) the attribute of Lordship [sic] or move him out of that of servanthood [sic]. Rather, it consists in an elevation because of his status, and an honor bestowed upon him because of his sublime character. (Source; underline emphasis ours)

Another Muslim authority named Ibn Batta stated in his book al-Sharh wa al-Ibana ‘ala Usul al-Sunna wa al-Diyana (“Elaboration of the Principles of Sunni Doctrine”), p. 61, that:

The Prophet shall be seated on the Throne with his Lord (yujlas ma‘a rabbihi ‘alâ al-‘arsh), and this privilege belongs to no one else. Thus did Nafi‘ narrate it from Ibn ‘Umar from the Prophet concerning the verse: “It may be that thy Lord will raise you to an Exalted Station” – he said that He shall seat him with Him on the Throne. Thus also did Mujahid explain it, as narrated by Muhammad ibn Fudayl, from al-Layth, from Mujahid. (Underline emphasis ours)

For those interested to know who this Mujahid is, he is Mujahid ibn Jabr, Abu al-Hajjaj al-Makhzumi (d. 102), one of the major commen­tators of the Qur’an among the tabi’in or followers of Muhammad’s companions (sahabah), and viewed as holding the highest rank in reli­ability among hadith narrators (thiqa). It is related by a Muslim scholar named Ibn Sa‘d, in al-Tabaqat al-Kubra (6:9), that Mujahid went over the explanation of the Islamic scripture together with Ibn ‘Abbas, Muhammad’s first cousin and one of the most knowledgeable Muslims that ever lived, approximately thirty times.

And here is a modern Muslim writer who affirms this interpretation:

Do they know any other Prophet or angel whom Allah addressed directly and by whose life He swore? “By thy life (O Muhammad)!” (15:72); “And who is better in his discourse than he who calls unto Allah and does good and says: I am one of the Muslims?” (41:33) i.e. who is better in speech than the Prophet? “Lo! those who believe and do good works are the best of created beings” (98:7) i.e. the Prophet is the best of created beings; “Lo! the noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct” (49:13) i.e. the Prophet is the noblest of those to whom the Qur'an is addressed in the sight of Allah; “And lo! thou (Muhammad) art [I swear] of a tremendous nature” (68:4). The reality of this compliment - khuluqin `azim - can be fathomed only by the Speaker Himself and whoever He wills; "Of those messengers, some of whom We have caused to excel others, and of whom there are some unto whom Allah spake, while _some of them He exalted (above others) in degree_" (2:253) i.e. the Prophet. “And we preferred some of the Prophets above others” (17:55) then He said: “It may be that thy Lord will raise thee to a praised estate” (17:79), a Station which the Prophet said none but he would receive and this is the Station of Intercession at the right of the Glorious Throne as we described at length in the posting “The Seating of the Prophet on the Throne.” (G.F. Haddad, The Prophetic Title "Best of Creation"; *; *; underline emphasis ours)

This is another obvious case of Muslims “borrowing” the theology of the inspired holy Writings, particularly the Biblical depiction of the Lord Jesus, and applying it to Muhammad in order to make the latter more comparable to the glorious and risen Son of God. According to God’s truly inspired writings after his resurrection Jesus ascended into heaven to sit on and rule from his Father’s glorious throne as the exalted and immortal Lord of all creation whom every creature shall eventually worship:

“… Again the high priest asked him, ‘Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed One?’ ‘I am,’ said Jesus. ‘And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.’” Mark 14:61b-62

“But Stephen, full of the Holy Spirit, looked up to heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God. ‘Look,’ he said, ‘I see heaven open and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God.’” Acts 7:55-56

“and his incomparably great power for us who believe. That power is like the working of his mighty strength, which he exerted in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly realms, far above all rule and authority, power and dominion, and every title that can be given, not only in the present age but also in the one to come. And God placed all things under his feet and appointed him to be head over everything for the church, which is his body, the fullness of him who fills everything in every way.” Ephesians 1:19-23

“For of this you can be sure: No immoral, impure or greedy person—such a man is an idolater—has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God.” Ephesians 5:5

Therefore God exalted him to the highest place and gave him the name that is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.” Philippians 2:9-11

“For in Christ all the fullness of the Deity lives in bodily form, and you have been given fullness in Christ, who is the head over every power and authority… Since, then, you have been raised with Christ, set your hearts on things above, where Christ is seated at the right hand of God.” Colossians 2:9-10, 3:1

“The point of what we are saying is this: We do have such a high priest, who sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, and who serves in the sanctuary, the true tabernacle set up by the Lord, not by man.” Hebrews 8:1-2

“… It saves you by the resurrection of Jesus Christ, who has gone into heaven and is at God's right hand—with angels, authorities and powers in submission to him.” 1 Peter 3:21b-22

“To him who overcomes, I will give the right to sit with me on my throne, just as I overcame and sat down with my Father on his throne.” Revelation 3:21

“Then the angel showed me the river of the water of life, as clear as crystal, flowing from the throne (singular) of God and of the Lamb down the middle of the great street of the city. On each side of the river stood the tree of life, bearing twelve crops of fruit, yielding its fruit every month. And the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations. No longer will there be any curse. The throne of God and of the Lamb will be in the city, and his servants will serve him.” Revelation 22:1-3

Interestingly, there were certain Muslims such as the commentator Al-Kawthari who could clearly see that these Islamic narratives were influenced by Christian claims concerning the exaltation of the risen Christ. He wrote in his Maqalat, p. 358, that:

“Whoever imagines that our Lord sits on the Throne and leaves space at His side for His Prophet to sit, has followed the Christians who hold that ‘Isa was raised to heaven and sat next to his Father – Allah is clear of the partnership they ascribe to Him!” (G. F. Haddad, The Prophet’s Seating on the Throne; underline emphasis ours)

Even during Muhammad’s own lifetime there were individuals who could see that the former was passing himself off as the Islamic version of Jesus by making certain claims and demands that were quite a similar to what the NT teaches concerning Christ:

It is related that 'Umar said to the Prophet, “Part of your excellence with Allah is that He has made obedience to you obedience to Him. Allah says, ‘Whoever obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah’ (4:80) and ‘If you love Allah, then follow me and Allah will love you.’” (3:31) it is related that when this ayat was sent down, people said, “Muhammad wants us to take him as a mercy IN THE WAY CHRISTIANS DID WITH ‘ISA, so Allah revealed, ‘Say: Obey Allah, and the Messenger.’” (3:32) (Qadi Iyad, p. 9; capital and underline emphasis ours)


(And he commanded you) O people of the Quraysh, Jews and Christians (not that ye should take the angels) as daughters of Allah (and the Prophets for lords. Would he command you to disbelieve) how could Abraham command you to follow disbelief (after ye had surrendered (to Allah) after he commanded you to follow Islam (completely Surrendering to Allah), saying to you: (Lo! Allah hath chosen for you the (true) Religion; therefore die not save as men who have surrendered [2:132]). Allah says here: Allah has not sent a Messenger except that He commanded him to follow Islam and not Judaism, Christianity or the worship of idols, as these unbelievers claim. It is also said that this verse was revealed about the claims of the Jews that Muhammad commanded them to love him and worship him as the Christians worshipped Jesus. The Christians and idolaters also made the same claim. (Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs; bold and underline emphasis ours)

For more on Muhammad occupying Allah’s throne please consult the following articles:


Islam – The religion of submitting to Muhammad

In light of the foregoing it should not come as surprise to discover that the Quran teaches that Islam is actually the religion of fully surrendering or submitting to Allah and Muhammad:

But nay, by thy Lord, they will not believe (in truth) until they make thee judge of what is in dispute between them and find within themselves no dislike of that which thou decidest, and submit with full submission. S. 4:65 Pickthall

As one source puts it:

(But nay, by your lord) Allah swore by Himself and by the age of Muhammad, (they will not believe) in secret nor deserve to be called believers when alone (until they make thee judge of what is in dispute between them and find within themselves) in their hearts (no dislike) no doubt (of that which thou decidest) between them, (and submit with full submission) totally submit to you. (Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs; bold and underline emphasis ours)

In fact here is what happened to a companion of Muhammad who refused to fully submit to Muhammad’s orders:

One Does not Become a Believer Unless He Refers to the Messenger for Judgment AND SUBMITS TO HIS DECISIONS

Allah said…

<But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you judge in all disputes between them,> Allah swears by His Glorious, Most Honorable Self, that no one shall attain faith until he refers to the Messenger for judgment IN ALL MATTERS. Thereafter, whatever the Messenger commands, is the plain truth that must be submitted to inwardly and outwardly. Allah said…

<and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.> meaning: they adhere to your judgment, and thus do not feel any hesitation over your decision, and they submit to it inwardly and outwardly. They submit to the Prophet's decision with total submission without any rejection, denial or dispute. Al-Bukhari recorded that `Urwah said, "Az-Zubayr quarreled with a man about a stream which both of them used for irrigation. Allah's Messenger said to Az-Zubayr…

<<O Zubayr! Irrigate (your garden) first, and then let the water flow to your neighbor.>> The Ansari became angry and said, `O Allah's Messenger! Is it because he is your cousin?' On that, the face of Allah's Messenger changed color (because of anger) and said…

<<Irrigate (your garden), O Zubayr, and then withhold the water until it reaches the walls (surrounding the palms). Then, release the water to your neighbor.>> So, Allah's Messenger gave Az-Zubayr his full right when the Ansari made him angry. Before that, Allah's Messenger had given a generous judgment, beneficial for Az-Zubayr and the Ansari. Az-Zubayr said, `I think the following verse was revealed concerning that case…

<But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you (O Muhammad) judge in all disputes between them.>’” Another reason in his Tafsir, Al-Hafiz Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin `Abdur-Rahman bin Ibrahim bin Duhaym recorded that Damrah narrated that two men took their dispute to the Prophet, and he gave a judgment to the benefit of whoever among them had the right. The person who lost the dispute said, “I do not agree.” The other person asked him, “What do you want then?” He said, “Let us go to Abu Bakr As-Siddiq.” They went to Abu Bakr and the person who won the dispute said, “We went to the Prophet with our dispute and he issued a decision in my favor.” Abu Bakr said, “Then the decision is that which the Messenger of Allah issued.” The person who lost the dispute still rejected the decision and said, “Let us go to `Umar bin Al-Khattab.” When they went to `Umar, the person who won the dispute said, "We took our dispute to the Prophet and he decided in my favor, but this man refused to submit to the decision.” `Umar bin Al-Khattab asked the second man and he concurred. `Umar went to his house and emerged from it holding aloft his sword. He struck the head of the man who rejected the Prophet's decision with the sword and killed him. Consequently, Allah revealed…

<But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith>. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir; capital and underline emphasis ours)

A companion of Muhammad is struck down in cold blood for simply refusing to fully accept his prophet’s decision! Doesn’t this clearly prove that a Muslim must submit to Muhammad in the same way and to the same degree that s/he submits to Allah? Doesn’t this further show that Islam is not a monotheistic religion and that Muslims do worship Muhammad since they are required to completely submit their will to his every decision and command and confess him alongside their god in order to be saved? And doesn’t all of this make them Muhammadans, the very title that Muslims despise and reject, when Muhammad stands at the very center of their religion?

For those interested in reading more on the topic of Muhammad’s apotheosis or deification we suggest the following articles and rebuttals:

The Deification of Muhammad
Do Muslims Worship Muhammad?
Revisiting the Issue of Islam's Second God

In the next section we will examine Jalal’s appeal to the NT concerning the Lord Jesus’ prayer life in order to see how this backfires against him.


Examining Jesus’ eating habits – Evidence from the Holy Bible that Muhammad is a false prophet

Jalal chides Wood for eating what Jesus never ate or permitted:

However, I do not really find it strange that David Wood would criticize Muslims for obeying their Prophet. He belongs to a flock that would eat what Jesus never ate and never allowed them to eat. This is how they show their obedience and loyalty to their claimed lord, by disobeying him and contradicting his practices. Then they have the courage to criticize Muslims for obeying their Prophet.

Jalal forgot to mention that Jesus didn’t eat camel eat since this was expressly prohibited by the Law which God gave through Moses:

“The LORD said to Moses and Aaron, ‘Say to the Israelites: “Of all the animals that live on land, these are the ones you may eat: You may eat any animal that has a split hoof completely divided and that chews the cud. There are some that only chew the cud or only have a split hoof, but you must not eat them. The camel, though it chews the cud, does not have a split hoof; it is ceremonially unclean for you.”’” Leviticus 11:1-4

“Do not eat any detestable thing. These are the animals you may eat: the ox, the sheep, the goat, the deer, the gazelle, the roe deer, the wild goat, the ibex, the antelope and the mountain sheep. You may eat any animal that has a split hoof divided in two and that chews the cud. However, of those that chew the cud or that have a split hoof completely divided you may not eat the camel, the rabbit or the coney. Although they chew the cud, they do not have a split hoof; they are ceremonially unclean for you.” Deuteronomy 14:3-7

And yet his false prophet permitted the eating of camel meat!

Of the cattle are some for burden and some for meat: eat what Allah hath provided for you, and follow not the footsteps of Satan: for he is to you and avowed enemy. (Take) eight (head of cattle) in (four) pairs: of sheep a pair, and of goats a pair; say, hath He forbidden the two males, or the two females, or (the young) which the wombs of the two females enclose? Tell me with knowledge if ye are truthful: Of camels a pair, and of oxen a pair; say, hath He forbidden the two males, or the two females, or (the young) which the wombs of the two females enclose? - Were ye present when Allah ordered you such a thing? But who doth more wrong than one who invents a lie against Allah, to lead astray men without knowledge? For Allah guideth not people who do wrong. Say: 'I find not in the Message received by me by inspiration any (meat) forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it, unless it be dead meat, or blood poured forth, or the flesh of swine,- for it is an abomination - or, what is impious, (meat) on which a name has been invoked, other than Allah's'. But (even so), if a person is forced by necessity, without willful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits,- thy Lord is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. For those who followed the Jewish Law, We forbade every (animal) with undivided hoof, and We forbade them that fat of the ox and the sheep, except what adheres to their backs or their entrails, or is mixed up with a bone: this in recompense for their willful disobedience: for We are True (in Our ordinances). If they accuse thee of falsehood, say: “Your Lord is full of mercy all-embracing; but from people in guilt never will His wrath be turned back.” S. 6:142-147

The sacrificial camels we have made for you as among the signs from Allah: in them is (much) good for you: then pronounce the name of Allah over them as they line up (for sacrifice): when they are down on their sides (after slaughter), eat ye thereof, and feed such as (beg not but) live in contentment, and such as beg with due humility: thus have We made animals subject to you, that ye may be grateful. S. 22:36

The ahadith state:

Narrated Anas bin Malik:
Allah's Apostle offered four Rakat of Zuhr prayer at Medina and we were in his company, and two Rakat of the Asr prayer at Dhul-Hulaifa and then passed the night there till it was dawn; then he rode, and when he reached Al-Baida', he praised and glorified Allah and said Takbir (i.e. Alhamdu-lillah and Subhanallah(1) and Allahu-Akbar). Then he and the people along with him recited Talbiya with the intention of performing Hajj and Umra. When we reached (Mecca) he ordered us to finish the lhram (after performing the Umra) (only those who had no Hadi (animal for sacrifice) with them were asked to do so) till the day of Tarwiya that is 8th Dhul-Hijja when they assumed Ihram for Hajj. The Prophet sacrificed many camels (slaughtering them) with his own hands while standing. While Allah's Apostle was in Medina he sacrificed two horned rams black and white in color in the Name of Allah." (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 623)

Narrated 'Ali:
The Prophet sent me to supervise the (slaughtering of) Budn (Hadi camels) and ordered me to distribute their meat, and then he ordered me to distribute their covering sheets and skins. 'Ali added, "The Prophet ordered me to supervise the slaughtering (of the Budn) and not to give anything (of their bodies) to the butcher as wages for slaughtering." (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 774)

Therefore, Muhammad stands condemned by both Moses and the Lord Jesus for eating and allowing others to eat an animal expressly forbidden by the true God of Abraham.

Jalal further forgot what his own false book says concerning Jesus being sent to make lawful some of the things which were forbidden to the children of Israel:

“And I have come confirming the Taurat that is between my hands (wa musaddiqan lima bayna yadayya mina al-tawrati), and to make lawful to you part of what was forbidden to you, and I have come to you with a proof from your Lord. So fear Allah and obey me.” S. 3:50

According to Jalal’s own scholars this included making lawful the consumption of certain foods:

(And (I come) confirming) and I have come confirming Allah's divine Oneness in the Religion (that which was before me of the Torah) and all other Scriptures, (and to make lawful) to give you legal dispensation regarding (some of that which was forbidden unto you) such as the meat of camels, the fat of bovines and sheep, the Sabbath, and other things. (I come unto you with a sign) with a token (from your Lord, so keep your duty to Allah) so fear Allah in that which He has commanded you with and repent to Him (and obey me) and follow my command and Religion; (Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs; bold and underline emphasis ours)


Likewise, I have come to you, confirming that which was before me of the Torah, and to make lawful for you some of that which was forbidden to you, in it. Thus he made lawful for them fish and birds which had no spikes; it is also said that he made it all lawful for them, so that ba'd, 'some', means, kull, 'all'). I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, He has repeated it for emphasis and to expand upon it: so fear God, and obey me, in what I command you of affirming God's Oneness and being obedient to Him. (Tafsir al-Jalalayn; bold and underline emphasis ours)

For more on this specific issue please consult the following rebuttals:


Examining Jesus’ prayer life – Some more proof from the inspired Scriptures that Muhammad was not God's prophet

Jalal also distorts what the Holy Bible, God’s truly inspired revelation, says concerning the Lord Jesus’ prayer life:

Clearly, the method of prayer practiced by Jesus himself to his Creator was the very Islamic Sujud prostration [sic]. Why then do Christians dance, sing and jump in churches instead of prostrating as their falsely claimed lord and savior did when he prayed? In contrast, Muslims pray as Jesus used to pray, taking a direction for the prayer as Jesus did, and, during the early era of Islam, prayed to the same Qiblah direction of prayer as Jesus did. Who is practicing paganism then?

Did Jesus really pray like Muslims do? Well, let us see:

“Taking the five loaves and the two fish and looking up to heaven, he gave thanks and broke the loaves. Then he gave them to his disciples to set before the people. He also divided the two fish among them all.” Mark 6:41

“Going a little farther, he fell with his face to the ground and prayed, ‘My Father, if it is possible, may this cup be taken from me. Yet not as I will, but as you will.’ Then he returned to his disciples and found them sleeping. ‘Could you men not keep watch with me for one hour?’ he asked Peter. ‘Watch and pray so that you will not fall into temptation. The spirit is willing, but the body is weak.’ He went away a second time and prayed, ‘My Father, if it is not possible for this cup to be taken away unless I drink it, may your will be done.’” Matthew 26:39-42

“When Martha heard that Jesus was coming, she went out to meet him, but Mary stayed at home. ‘Lord,’ Martha said to Jesus, ‘if you had been here, my brother would not have died. But I know that even now God will give you whatever you ask.’ Jesus said to her, ‘Your brother will rise again.’ Martha answered, ‘I know he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day.’ Jesus said to her, ‘I am the Resurrection and the Life. He who believes in me will live, even though he dies; and whoever lives and believes in me will never die. Do you believe this?’ ‘Yes, Lord,’ she told him, ‘I believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God, who was to come into the world.’ … Jesus, once more deeply moved, came to the tomb. It was a cave with a stone laid across the entrance. ‘Take away the stone,’ he said. ‘But, Lord,’ said Martha, the sister of the dead man, ‘by this time there is a bad odor, for he has been there four days.’ Then Jesus said, ‘Did I not tell you that if you believed, you would see the glory of God?’ So they took away the stone. Then Jesus looked up and said,Father, I thank you that you have heard me. I knew that you always hear me, but I said this for the benefit of the people standing here, that they may believe that you sent me.’ When he had said this, Jesus called in a loud voice, ‘Lazarus, come out!’ The dead man came out, his hands and feet wrapped with strips of linen, and a cloth around his face.” John 11:20-27, 38-44

“After Jesus said this, he looked toward heaven and prayed: ‘Father, the time has come. Glorify your Son, that your Son may glorify you. For you granted him authority over all people that he might give eternal life to all those you have given him. Now this is eternal life: that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent. I have brought you glory on earth by completing the work you gave me to do. And now, Father, glorify me in your presence with the glory I had with you before the world began.’” John 17:1-5

There are three main points to glean from all of these texts. First, Jesus prayed looking towards heaven, something which is expressly forbidden in Islam:

Jabir b. Samura reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: The people who lift their eyes towards the sky in Prayer should avoid it or they would lose their eyesight. (Sahih Muslim, Book 004, Number 0862)

Abu Huraira reported: People should avoid lifting their eyes towards the sky while supplicating in prayer, otherwise their eyes would be snatched away. (Sahih Muslim, Book 004, Number 0863)

Second, Jesus addressed God as his Father. Muhammad, however, denied that his god was a father to anyone, especially to Christ:

And the Jews say: Uzair is the son of Allah; and the Christians say: The Messiah is the son of Allah; these are the words of their mouths; they imitate the saying of those who disbelieved before; may Allah destroy them; how they are turned away! S. 9:30

And they say, 'The All-merciful has taken unto Himself a son. You have indeed advanced something hideous! The heavens are wellnigh rent of it and the earth split asunder, and the mountains wellnigh fall down crashing for that they have attributed to the All-merciful a son; and it behoves not the All-merciful to take a son. None is there in the heavens and earth but he comes to the All-merciful as a servant; S. 19:88-93

Third, Jesus affirms his preexistence and his absolute Deity by claiming to be able to give eternal life and to have existed with his Father in the same Divine glory before the creation of the world. Again, this is something which Muslim scholars deny since they do not believe in the Deity of the Lord Jesus.

Thus, all of these examples provide further proof against Muhammad, exposing him as a false prophet who preached a false Jesus and a false Gospel. He therefore comes under the wrath and condemnation of the true God of the Holy Bible:

“For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him. Whoever believes in him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe stands condemned already because he has not believed in the name of God's one and only Son.” John 3:16-18

“Who is the liar? It is the man who denies that Jesus is the Christ. Such a man is the antichrist—he denies the Father and the Son. No one who denies the Son has the Father; whoever acknowledges the Son has the Father also.” 1 John 2:22-23

Jalal must have further forgotten or failed to take notice that the Lord Jesus expressly said that a time would come when true followers would no longer have to go to Jerusalem, or even face it, to worship God:

“‘Sir, the woman said, ‘I can see that you are a prophet. Our fathers worshiped on this mountain, but you Jews claim that the place where we must worship is in Jerusalem.’ Jesus declared, ‘Believe me, woman, a time is coming when you will worship the Father neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem. You Samaritans worship what you do not know; we worship what we do know, for salvation is from the Jews. Yet a time is coming and has now come when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for they are the kind of worshipers the Father seeks. God is spirit, and his worshipers must worship in spirit and in truth.’” John 4:19-24

Since Jesus says that it is God the Father who must be worshiped in union with the Holy Spirit and in accord with his revealed truth, and since Muhammad denied that his god is a father, this means that Muslims are not worshiping the true God and their prayers are an abomination to him since they do not have the Holy Spirit indwelling them.

Jalal must have also forgotten the testimony of his own false prophet who stated that God gave prophets like David the Psalms,

And if they deny thee, even so did they deny messengers who were before thee, who came with miracles and with the Psalms and with the Scripture giving light. S. 3:184

We have sent thee inspiration, as We sent it to Noah and the Apostles after him: we sent inspiration to Abraham, Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes, to Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and Solomon, and to David We gave the Psalms. S. 4:163

And that these very Psalms exhort true believers to sing and dance to the Lord:

“Praise the LORD. Sing to the LORD a new song, his praise in the assembly of the saints. Let Israel rejoice in their Maker; let the people of Zion be glad in their King. Let them praise his name with dancing and make music to him with tambourine and harp. For the LORD takes delight in his people; he crowns the humble with salvation. Let the saints rejoice in this honor and sing for joy on their beds. May the praise of God be in their mouths and a double-edged sword in their hands, to inflict vengeance on the nations and punishment on the peoples, to bind their kings with fetters, their nobles with shackles of iron, to carry out the sentence written against them. This is the glory of all his saints. Praise the LORD.” Psalm 149:1-9

“Praise the LORD. Praise God in his sanctuary; praise him in his mighty heavens. Praise him for his acts of power; praise him for his surpassing greatness. Praise him with the sounding of the trumpet, praise him with the harp and lyre, praise him with tambourine and dancing, praise him with the strings and flute, praise him with the clash of cymbals, praise him with resounding cymbals. Let everything that has breath praise the LORD. Praise the LORD.” Psalm 150:1-6

David himself is said to have danced before the Lord:

“Now King David was told, ‘The LORD has blessed the household of Obed-Edom and everything he has, because of the ark of God.’ So David went down and brought up the ark of God from the house of Obed-Edom to the City of David with rejoicing. When those who were carrying the ark of the LORD had taken six steps, he sacrificed a bull and a fattened calf. David, wearing a linen ephod, danced before the LORD with all his might, while he and the entire house of Israel brought up the ark of the LORD with shouts and the sound of trumpets. As the ark of the LORD was entering the City of David, Michal daughter of Saul watched from a window. And when she saw King David leaping and dancing before the LORD, she despised him in her heart… When David returned home to bless his household, Michal daughter of Saul came out to meet him and said, ‘How the king of Israel has distinguished himself today, disrobing in the sight of the slave girls of his servants as any vulgar fellow would!’ David said to Michal, ‘It was before the LORD, who chose me rather than your father or anyone from his house when he appointed me ruler over the LORD's people Israel—I will celebrate before the LORD. I will become even more undignified than this, and I will be humiliated in my own eyes. But by these slave girls you spoke of, I will be held in honor.’ And Michal daughter of Saul had no children to the day of her death.” 2 Samuel 6:12-16, 20-23

So much for Jalal’s appeal to the Holy Bible and Jesus’ prayer life!



Our examination of Jalal’s arguments has once again shown that his recent “reply” is simply another example of his incoherent babble. With each new article and “rebuttal” Jalal simply provides further evidence that he is a master of logical fallacies who can only produce replies that distort the arguments of his opponents, as well as perverting what the Holy Bible, God’s true Word, and his own religious sources actually teach. It seems that Jalal counts on the readers not seeing through all his bluster and hopes that they will be duped into thinking that he is actually addressing his opponents’ points.

What made Jalal’s “rebuttal” rather amusing is that in certain instances he ended up proving Wood’s point, despite the fact that he actually thought he was writing a thorough refutation! The sad thing about this is that Jalal doesn’t see how his “responses” help to establish his opponents’ arguments and highlight his rather incoherent and logically fallacious style of writing. It is truly unfortunate that he doesn’t see this since it would save his opponents a lot of time responding to such shoddy and unscholarly polemics if he did.

As it stands Wood’s short blog post remains untouched and the evidence shows that the true God of Abraham did not inspire Muhammad. Rather, the data indicates that Muhammad was influenced by a lying and deceiving spirit as well as by the various religious groups that he came into constant contact with. Moreover, the Islamic source material conclusively proves that Islam is an idolatrous and pagan system masquerading itself as a monotheistic religion.